Anything connecting the author Shakespeare to Stratford is posthumous and weak.
Shakespeare between Machiavelli and Hobbes: Dead Body Politics
The only really solid facts that remain about the man from Stratford are from his business dealings, which reveal a somewhat unedifying picture of a tight-fisted, money-grubbing parochial businessman with no evident love of culture at all. He doesn't look a good fit as the author of the dazzlingly erotic Venus and Adonis, the tragic romance of Romeo and Juliet or the powerful exploration of grief and mortality of Hamlet. The possibility then, that this seemingly piddling figure did not write the great words attributed to him is obvious. But it is not the only reason to believe the name Shakespeare may have hidden another author.
Whilst most scholars scoff at the idea that Shakespeare was a pseudonym, they do acknowledge that he was credited as the author of dozens of plays during the 17th century that he did not write. With no copyright protection, unscrupulous publishers were able to cash in on Shakespeare's reputation and erroneously attribute to him plays such as Mucedorus, The Puritan and The Merry Devil of Edmonton. All of these plays were credited to Shakespeare after his death and probably have nothing to do with him.
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But other titles are more problematic. The latter two were even staged by his own theatre company the King's Men. With this in mind, it's hard to avoid the conclusion that the 'real' Shakespeare allowed other writers to publish works under his name on two occasions that we know of.
Shakespeare was, therefore, a pseudonym at least some of the time. According to Taylor and Mosher's Biographical History of Anonyma and Pseudonyma , this is not to be unexpected - "In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Golden Age of pseudonyms, almost every writer used a pseudonym at some time or other during his career. Not only were pseudonyms common in Elizabethan times, the use of a hyphen in the name, like Martin Mar-prelate, Cutherbert Curry-knave and Tom Tell-truth, was a particularly common form.
This same verb-noun penname style, 'Shake-Speare' in this case, is used on close to half of the plays the author is credited with during his early career. If, as Shakespeare scholars like to tell us, this is not a pseudonym, then it is one of history's most amazing coincidences, as 'Shake-Speare' just happens to make a phenomenally apt pseudonym for a writer.
The writer of the plays, whoever he was, demonstrated a thorough knowledge of ancient myth and legend, and would therefore be aware of the goddess Pallas Athena, in Greek myth born from the head of Zeus 'shaking a spear'. Most depictions of Pallas Athena, also known as Minerva, show her holding this spear.
That this spear shaking goddess was also associated with knowledge, wisdom, and the arts, could hardly be more appropriate. She was even specifically identified with playwrights by satirist Stephen Gosson in , describing how the Romans would dedicate their plays to the gods, "the penning to Minerva". These obvious parallels were not lost on contemporary authors, John Vicars described Shakespeare as he "who takes his name from the shaking and spear".
Even Ben Jonson, in his introduction to the first folio in , strongly makes the hint about spear shaking when he writes - "In his well torned and true filed lines, In each of which he seems to shake a lance". Was it really a coincidence that this mysterious author, of whom we know so little, was often credited as the hyphenated Shake-Speare, a name that echoed a spear shaking goddess associated with the arts and playwrights? Could it be the real author of the plays deliberately choose the name Shakespeare as a playful allusion to he fact it was a literary pseudonym? Some contemporary authors hinted of the deception.
According to Suetonius, a Roman historian whose work was a popular reference source for Elizabethan authors, Labeo was a Roman nobleman who probably secretly wrote some of the work credited to the North African slave turned poet and playwright Terence. Before Shakespeare there was Marlowe. Although the two men were born in , Marlowe's talent was far more precocious than Shakespeare's. Faustus , indeed all of Marlowe's known canon, predate Shakespeare's first published work, the poem Venus and Adonis in Marlowe's work was extremely popular and influential in its time, and all mainstream scholars acknowledge his significant impact on Shakespeare.
He pioneered the use of blank verse so evident in Shakespeare's plays, and the latter often borrows wholesale many of Marlowe's ideas, characters, words, and phrases. It's long been speculated early Shakespeare plays like Henry VI may even have been collaborations with Marlowe. Marlowe proponents, or Marlovians as they are known, go much further than this and maintain their candidate was the main author of all of Shakespeare's work.
Their argument centers not just on the acknowledged stylistic similarities, but the biography of Marlowe himself. In contrast to Shakespeare, Marlowe had an excellent education, earning a masters degree at Cambridge. He was fluent in several languages and widely traveled.
He was acquainted with many members of the aristocracy. He even had exotic life experiences; it is now known Marlowe was probably working periodically as a spy for the British government, operating in France, Italy and Spain.
Baconian theory of Shakespeare authorship - Wikipedia
Marlowe clearly had friends in high places, his literary patron was Sir Thomas Walsingham, courtier to Queen Elizabeth and brother of Marlowe's spymaster and head of the Secret Service Sir Francis Walsingham. He was also a member of the so-called university wits, a group of talented university educated poets and playwrights that included figures like Thomas Nash and George Peele. In many ways, Marlowe is the best candidate to be the true Shakespeare out of all of those proposed over the years, even the Stratford man. He is the only serious alternative who was an acknowledged great writer in his own right, a man who pioneered many of the innovations Shakespeare would later use.
His education, life experiences, friends and cultural life also look a perfect fit for the writer of the plays. The problem, of course, is what happened in May , when Marlowe's glittering career was cut tragically short by a brutal fight in a tavern in Deptford. History tells us the year-old writer was killed, stabbed in the eye, after getting into a fight with three other men over a bar bill. Since this was before Shakespeare's work ever appeared in print, how could Marlowe be the true author of the plays?
This seemingly fatal flaw is an integral part of the Marlovian's theory. Marlowe was no ordinary Elizabethan author, he was a spy and had rich and powerful benefactors. They say Marlowe had gotten himself into big trouble with the authorities over heresy charges and his friends helped him evade punishment by staging his death and smuggling him out of the country to Italy.
It wouldn't be the first time Marlowe had been mysteriously protected from the consequences of his actions. In , Cambridge University refused to award him his masters degree for both lack of attendance and rumors he was involved with Catholic sedition in France. The privy council, including the Queen's chief advisor Lord Burghley, intervened, ordering Cambridge to award Marlowe the degree because of his "faithful dealing" and "good service" to the Queen. In , Marlowe was arrested in Holland on serious charges of counterfeiting.
When shipped back to England for prosecution, Lord Burghley again stepped in and all the charges were dropped. Incidents like these have convinced many that Marlowe was not only a spy, but an important one, for Burghley and Walsingham's Secret Service. Had his powerful protectors again swooped in in when Marlowe faced charges of heresy? What happened in the tavern in Deptford was based on anecdote and rumor until , when the previously lost coroner's report into Marlowe's death was found by American scholar J.
Leslie Hotson. All three of the men involved in the incident were in the employ of Walsingham, and the tavern in question was directly connected to Burghley. Was his apparent death actually Marlowe's last theatrical production under his own name, a ruse concocted with his fellow spies to aid his escape from the country? From here Marlovians then contend their candidate continued to write poems and plays whilst in exile in Italy, sending them back to England under the pen name William Shakespeare.
They point to the many Shakespeare plays set in Italy and the repeated theme of exile and false identity Shakespeare explores in many of his works. The date of Marlowe's death and the appearance of Shakespeare on the literary scene is also highly suggestive. Just thirteen days after Marlowe's supposed demise in Deptford, the long narrative poem Venus and Adonis first appears under the name William Shakespeare.
checkout.midtrans.com/conocer-mujeres-separadas-en-orcera.php For Marlovians, the timing and its stylistic similarities to Marlowe's earlier poem Hero and Leander, point to this been the first work under his new nom de plume of Shakespeare. Of course, if Marlowe really did die in the tavern in Deptford, then he is not the author of Shakespeares plays. At this point, a mercurial Earl enter's stage left.
Edward De Vere, the 17th Earl of Oxford was a theatrical soul at heart. Born in and raised in Queen Elizabeth's court, his eventful and colorful life would have made a good Shakespeare play.
Indeed, many Oxfordians believe dramatic incidents from De Vere's life are directly fictionalized in some of Shakespeare plays, a sure sign, they claim, that Oxford was their true author. As to be expected of a man born into the aristocracy, Oxford's education was far superior to that of the Stratford Shakspere. He was tutored by some of the finest men of the age, including mathematician and occultist John Dee, studied French, Latin and law and developed a keen interest in history, philosophy, and literature.
The fact that De Vere studied law is of particular interest considering how steeped in legal terminology much of Shakespeare's writing is. Plays like Measure for Measure and the Merchant of Venice, as well as sonnets like Sonnet 46, contain complex extended legal metaphors that Oxfordians say could only come from the mind of a trained lawyer. In terms of literary credentials to be the man behind Shakespeare's quill, Oxford does not seem to fair as well as Christopher Marlowe.
Very little of the Earl's writing survives and what does are callow efforts that cannot be expected to compare to the mature writer of the plays. However, anecdotally, at least, Oxford's had a reputation in the Royal Court as an excellent author. Historian Henry Peacham, perhaps in the know, does not mention Shakespeare at all in 's The Compleat Gentleman, but praises Oxford as one of the leading poets of the era.
Oxford's family were also steeped in the theatre. His father had his own theatrical troupe called Oxford's Men, and Oxford himself was an important lifelong patron of the arts, including poets and writers, actors, musicians and acrobats. A group of actors sponsored by Oxford would continue to perform around the country as the Oxford Players for over twenty years.
Shakespearean actors like Mark Rylance have commented that they feel the authorial voice that comes to them through the plays is that of someone with the theatre running through their blood, and Oxford certainly fits the bill on that front. Whilst the historical photo-fit of Oxford may resemble the author of the plays, it's De Vere's very personal connection to many of the works of Shakespeare that Oxfordians believe is their strongest suit. When Venus and Adonis, the first credited work of Shakespeare, appeared in , it was dedicated to Henry Wriothesley, the 3rd Earl of Southampton.
At the time, Oxford's daughter had just become engaged to Wriothesley. Another family member, Oxford's uncle Henry Howard, actually invented the sonnet form used in Shakespeare's sonnets. Many conventional Shakespeare scholars agree that the character of Polonius in Hamlet is a quite detailed parody of Queen Elizebeth's chief counsel Lord Burghley.